Excel Functions

Excel INDIRECT Function

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The INDIRECT function returns a valid reference from a given text string. Use INDIRECT when you need to convert a reference assembled as text into a proper reference.

Purpose of Excel INDIRECT Function

 Create a reference from text.

Return value

A valid worksheet reference.


=INDIRECT (ref_text, [a1])


ref_textA reference supplied as text.Mandatory
a1 A boolean to indicate A1 or R1C1-style reference. Default is TRUE = A1 style.Optional

Usage note

  • Use INDIRECT to create or supply a reference in text form. Indirect is useful when you want to convert a text value into a valid cell reference.
  • The reference created by INDIRECT will not change even when cells, rows, or columns are inserted or deleted. For example, the formula =INDIRECT(“A1:A100”) will always refer to the first 100 rows of column A, even if rows in that range are deleted or inserted.


Since 2007 for Windows.
Since 2011 for Mac.

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